I am looking for resources on a seemingly simple issue. I believe the seeming simplicity of this issue is quite deceptive: What is a "surface?" What allows anything to "touch?" Where does philosophy stand on this issue? Thank you for your time.

Excellent questions. I'm glad to hear you're looking into this issue. I think philosophers and scientists often throw around talk of "surfaces" much too glibly. I recommend starting your search with the SEP entry on the concept of a boundary, available here. It contains a lot of information relevant to your questions and a bibliography with several useful references.

You should consult:

Stroll, A., 1979, ‘Two Concepts of Surfaces’, Midwest Studies in Philosophy 4: 277-291.

Stroll, A., 1988, Surfaces, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

The two concepts of a surface are the physical one, in which a surface can be pockmarked or scored, and the geometrical one, in which it is an ideal or geometrical object.

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