I've been away from academia since I dropped out of philosophy grad school in 1997, so I'm out of touch with recent developments in philosophy.
What are the most significant philosophical books or papers of the past eight or so years?
(My main areas of interest in grad school were metaphysics and philosophy of language, but I'd be interested in your answer whatever your specialty.)
If I could look back slightly farther than you asked to the last decade in philosophy of mind, I think one of the most important books published was David Chalmers' The Conscious Mind (1996). This book brought consciousness back to the forefront of discussion. One important trend in philosophy of mind in the last decade has been the advent of representationalism -- the view that consciousness (or what we might call phenomenal character) ultimately reduces to representational content. Important books on representationalism and related issues include Michael Tye's Ten Problems of Consciousness (1995), Fred Dretske's Naturalizing the Mind (1995), and Charles Siewert's The Significance of Consciousness (1998), though there are many others.